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Israel Gutman, Poland

Israel Gutman was born in Warsaw in 1923. In his youth he joined the Hashomer Hatzair youth movement; one of his mentors was Mordechai Anielewicz. Israel joined the Jewish Fighting Organization and was appointed in charge of the bunkers during the Warsaw ghetto uprising. On one of the nights he was shot by a German soldier when he left the bunker, and nearly lost his eyesight. The people hiding in the bunker, including Gutman, were forced to leave the bunker and surrender, and were sent to the Majdanek death camp. Gutman was transferred to Auschwitz, where he joined the underground movement. When Auschwitz was evacuated he walked in the death march to Mauthausen, where he was liberated. Professor Gutman testified in the Eichmann trial, and is one of the most prominent historians of the Holocaust period.